For more information about this v4, you can consult the general introduction article.
First of all, you have to know that there is not upgrade possible from v3 to
v4, so a
DROP EXTENSION powa is required if you were already using PoWA on
any of your servers. This is because this v4 involved a lot of changes in
the SQL part of the extension, making it the most significant change in the
PoWA suite for this new version. Looking at the amount changes at the time I’m
writing this article, I get:
The lack of upgrade shouldn’t be a problem in practice though. PoWA is a performance tool, so it’s intended to have data with high precision but with a very limited history. If you’re looking for a general monitoring solution keeping months of counters, PoWA is definitely not the tool you need.
Configuring the list of remote servers
Concerning the features themselves, the first small change is that powa-archivist does not require the background worker to be active anymore, as it won’t be used for remote setup. That means that a PostgreSQL restart is not needed needed anymore to install PoWA. Obviously, a restart is still required if you want to use the local setup, using the background worker, or if you want to install additional extensions that themselves require a restart.
Then, as PoWA needs some configuration (frequency of snapshot, data retention
and so on), some new tables are added to be able to configure all of that. The
powa_servers table stores the configuration for all the remote instances
whose data should be stored on this instance. This local PoWA instance is
call a repository server (that typically should be dedicated to storing
PoWA data), in opposition to remote instances which are the instances you
want to monitor. The content of this table is pretty straightforward:
If you already used PoWA, you should recognize most of the configuration options, that are now stored here. The new options are used to describe how to connect to the remote servers, and can provide an alias to be displayed in the UI.
You also probably noticed a password column here. Storing a password in plain text in this table is an heresy as far as security is concerned. So, as mentioned in the PoWA security section of the documentation, you can store a NULL password and use instead any of the authentication method that libpq supports (.pgpass file, certificate…). That’s strongly recommended for any non toy setup.
Another table, the
powa_snapshot_metas table, is also added to store some
metadata regarding each remote server snapshot information:
That’s basically a counter to track the number of snapshots done, the timestamp for each kind of event that happened (snapshot, aggregate and purge), and a text array to store any error happening during the snapshot, that the UI can display.
SQL API to configure the remote servers
While thoses table are simple, a basic SQL API is available to register new servers and configure them. Basically, 6 functions are available:
powa_register_server(), to declare a new remote server, and the list of extensions available on it
powa_configure_server()to update any setting for the specified remote server (using a JSON where the key is the name of the parameter to change, and the value is the new value to use)
powa_deactivate_server()to disable snapshots on the specified remote server (which actually is setting up the
powa_delete_and_purge_server()to remove the specified remote server from the list of servers and remove all associated snapshot data
powa_activate_extension(), to declare that a new extension is available on the specified remote server
powa_deactivate_extension(), to specify that an extension is not available anymore on the specified remote server
Any action more complicated than this should be performed using plain SQL queries. Hopefully, there shouldn’t be many other needs, and the tables are straightforward so this shouldn’t be a problem. Feel free to ask for more functions if you feel the need though. Please also note that the UI doesn’t allow you to call those functions, as the UI is for now entirely read only.
Performing remote snapshots
As metrics are now stored on a different PostgreSQL instance, we had to extensively change the way snapshots (retrieving the data from a stat extension and storing them in PoWA catalog in a space efficient way) are performed.
The list of all stat extensions, or data sources, that are available on a
server (either remote or local) and for which we should perform a
snapshot are configured in a table called
query_source field is added, that provides the name of a source
function, required to support remote snapshot of any stat
This function is used to export the counters provided by this extension on a
different server, in a dedicated transient table. The snapshot function
will then perform the snapshot using those exported data instead of the one
provided by stat extensions locally when the remote mode is used. Note that
the counters export and the remote snapshot is done automatically with the the
that I’ll cover in another article.
Here’s an example of how PoWA perform a remote snapshot of the list of databases. As you’ll see, this is very simplistic, meaning that it’s very easy to add support for a new stat extension.
The transient table:
For better performance, all the transient tables are unlogged, as their content is only needed during a snapshot and are trashed afterwards. In this example the transient table only stores the server identifier for which the data are, the oid and name of each databases present on the remote server.
And the source function:
This function simply returns the content of
pg_database if local data are
asked (server id 0 is always the local server), or the content of the
transient table for the given remote server otherwise.
The snapshot function can then easily do any required work with the data
for the wanted remote server. In the case of the
function, the just synchronizing the list of databases, and storing the
timestamp of removal if a previously existing database is not found anymore.
For more details, you can consult the PoWA datasource integration documentation, which was updated for the version 4 specificities.